Posix/Linux Simulator Demo for FreeRTOS
The FreeRTOS port documented on this page allows FreeRTOS to run on Linux just as the
FreeRTOS Windows port (often
referred to as the FreeRTOS Windows simulator) has always allowed FreeRTOS to run on Windows. The port was contributed by David
Vrabel, and inspired by William Davy's original 2008 Linux port.
The implementation of the port layer uses POSIX threading, so the port is also referred to as the POSIX port. It should not be confused
with the FreeRTOS-Plus-POSIX library – they do completely opposite things.
FreeRTOS-Plus-POSIX provides a POSIX threading wrapper for the native FreeRTOS API that enables applications written using the POSIX API
to run on FreeRTOS, whereas the Linux/POSIX FreeRTOS port enables FreeRTOS applications to run on POSIX operating systems.
Just like the Windows port, the FreeRTOS Linux port provides a convenient environment in which you can
experiment with FreeRTOS and develop FreeRTOS applications intended for later porting to real embedded hardware - but FreeRTOS applications
that use the Linux port will not exhibit real-time behaviour.
IMPORTANT! Notes on using the Posix/Linux Simulator Demo for FreeRTOS
Please read all the following points before using the simulator demo.
Also see the FAQ My application does not run, what could be wrong?.
Source Code Organization
The FreeRTOS zip file download contains the source code for all the FreeRTOS ports and demo applications – so it contains many more files than are required to build and run the pre-configured demos that use the FreeRTOS Linux port. See the Source Code Organization page for information on the zip file's directory structure.
There are two demo projects: A Kernel only demo which is located in the
FreeRTOS/Demo/POSIX_GCC directory, and a networking demo which is located in the
The Posix/Linux Simulator Demos
This project demonstrates FreeRTOS kernel functionality using the Linux (POSIX) port. The project can be configured to run either a simple Blinky style demo (
BLINKY_DEMO), or a more comprehensive style demo (
FULL_DEMO) by setting the constant
mainSELECTED_APPLICATION, which is defined at the top of
mainSELECTED_APPLICATION is set to
main() will call
main_blinky(), which is implemented in
main_blinky() creates a very simple demo that includes two tasks, a software timer, and a queue. One task repeatedly sends the value 100 at a frequency of 200 milliseconds to the other task through the queue, while the timer sends the value 200 every 2000ms to the same queue. The receiving task prints out a message each time it receives either of the values from the queue.
mainSELECTED_APPLICATION is set to
main() will call
main_full(), which is implemented in
main_full.c. The demo created by
main_full() consists primarily of the standard demo tasks, which don't perform any particular functionality other than testing the RTOS port and demonstrating how the FreeRTOS API can be used.
The full demo includes a 'check' task that executes every (simulated) ten seconds, but has the highest priority to ensure it gets processing time. Its main function is to check that all the standard demo tasks are still operational. The check task maintains a status string that is output to the console each time it executes. If all the standard demo tasks are running without error, then the string contains "OK" and the current tick count. If an error has been detected, then the string contains a message that indicates which task reported the error.
This project demonstrates networking on Linux using the FreeRTOS-Plus-TCP TCP/IP stack. It re-uses the TCP echo client demo originally written for the demo that uses FreeRTOS-Plus-TCP with the Windows RTOS port.
The TCP echo demo uses the FreeRTOS-Plus-TCP TCP/IP stack to connect and communicate with a
standard TCP echo server on TCP port 7.
The FreeRTOS-Plus-TCP network interface for Linux uses libpcap to access the network.
To configure the TCP/IP stack for use with the demo:
It is common for TCP port 7 (the standard echo port) to be blocked by firewalls. If this is the case, then change the port number used by both the FreeRTOS application and the echo server to a high, but valid,
number, such as 50000. The port number used by the FreeRTOS application is set by the echoECHO_PORT
constant in TCPEchoClient_SingleTasks.c.
If you create a TCP echo server using the
Follow the instructions under the
Software Setup #1, Software Setup #2, and Software Setup #4 sections
on the page that describes using FreeRTOS-Plus-TCP on Windows hosts (the steps under Software Setup #3 are not required).
Set the constants
to the address of the echo server in
nc command in Linux then the port number is set using the
$ sudo nc -l 7
ARP responses may not get sent if the echo server is running on the same computer as the FreeRTOS demo, resulting in the demo not being able to connect to the echo server. If this is an issue, then run the echo server on a different computer than that on which the RTOS demo is executing.
Building the Posix/Linux Simulator Demos
GDB Debugging Tips
This section assumes that you have installed, and are familiar with, gdb.
You can find the gdb documentation here.
The port layer uses two process signals:
SIGALRM. If a pthread is not waiting on
the signal, then GDB will pause the process when it receives the signal. GDB must be told to ignore (and not print) the
SIGUSR1 because it is received asynchronously by each thread. In GDB, enter:
$ handle SIGUSR1 nostop noprint pass
to ensure that debugging is not interrupted by the signals. See:
$ man signal
for more information.
Alternatively, create a file in your home directory called
.gdbinit and place the following two lines in it:
handle SIGUSR1 nostop noignore noprint
handle SIGALRM nostop noignore noprint
When you add these two lines to the
.gdbinit file, it tells GDB to not break on those signals.
There are three different timers available for use as the System tick:
ITIMER_PROF. The default timer is
ITIMER_VIRTUAL because it only counts when the process is
executing in user space, so it will stop when a break-point is hit.
ITIMER_PROF is equivalent to
ITIMER_VIRTUAL but it includes the time spent executing system calls.
counting even when the process is not executing at all, so it represents real-time.
ITIMER_REAL is the only
usable option because the other timers don't tick unless the process is actually running. For that reason, if
nanosleep is called in the IDLE task hook, the time reported by the non-real timers will hardly ever
Port-Layer Design Description
A simple implementation of a FreeRTOS Simulator would simply wrap the platform native threads, and all calls to switch Task
contexts would call the OS suspend and resume thread API. This simulator uses the Posix condition variables and Signals to
control the execution of the underlying Posix threads. Signals can be delivered to the threads asynchronously, so that they
interrupt the execution of the target thread, while suspended threads wait on condition variables to resume.
Typically, when designing a multi-threaded process, we use multiple threads to allow for concurrent execution and to
implement a degree of non-blocking on IO tasks. This simulator does not use the threads to achieve concurrent execution,
but only to store the context of the execution. Signals, mutexes and condition variables are used to synchronize context
switching, but ultimately, the decision to change the context is driven by the FreeRTOS scheduler.
When a new Task is created, a pthread is created as the context for the execution of that Task. The pthread immediately
suspends itself, and returns the execution to the creator. When a pthread is suspended, it is waiting in a call to
pthread_cond_wait, which is blocked until it receives a resume signal
FreeRTOS Tasks can be switched in two ways, co-operatively by calling
taskYIELD() or pre-emptively as part
of the RTOS system Tick. In this simulator, the Task contexts are switched by resuming the next task context (decided by the
FreeRTOS Scheduler) and suspending the current context (with a brief handshake between the two).
The RTOS system tick is generated using an
ITIMER and the signal is delivered (only to) the currently executing
pthread. The RTPS system tick signal handler increments the tick count and selects the next RTOS task context. It resumes that thread and sends a
signal to itself to suspend. The suspend is only processed when the TOS system tick signal handler exits, because signals are
pthread_exit/cancel are system intensive calls which can rapidly saturate the
If you call system and library functions that block (printf), this could cause the whole process to halt. If it is necessary
to make system calls, all signals on that thread must be masked, then re-allowed after the system call finishes execution.
Additional threads could be created to simulate interrupts, but signals should be masked in those threads as well, so that
they do not receive signals and so would be scheduled to execute by the FreeRTOS scheduler and become part of the regular FreeRTOS
To prevent the process from stealing all of the Idle execution time of the Host OS, use
nano_sleep(). It doesn't
use any signals in its implementation but will abort from the sleep/suspend process immediately to service a signal.
Therefore, the best way to use it is to set a sleep time longer than a FreeRTOS execution time-slice and call it from the
Idle task so that the process suspends until the next tick.
Common Problems and Solutions
Creating external threads with
pthread_create (for example: simulating interrupts) can affect how FreeRTOS schedules tasks, as the underlying RTOS port relies on the reception of some signals to operate. The created thread could receive the signal instead which causes the scheduler to hijack the thread from its intended purpose to serve FreeRTOS specific tasks. This can lead to crashes and even deadlocks.
When creating a thread with pthread_create, signals should be blocked on that thread by adding something like the following to the body of the thread:
sigfillset( &set );
pthread_sigmask( SIG_SETMASK, &set, NULL );
Alternatively, there exists a better, but non portable, solution by blocking signals before the thread is created:
void * args;
sigfillset( &set );
pthread_attr_init( &attr );
pthread_attr_setsigmask_np( &attr, &set );
pthread_create( &tid, &attr, start_routine, args );
Creating new tasks
RTOS tasks created with
As a workaround, always pass a stack of size PTHREAD_STACK_MIN if the desired stack is less than PTHREAD_STACK_MIN when running on a Posix port.
xTaskCreate() pass their created stack into port.c to allow the pthread library to use that stack with pthread_attr_setstack. A limitation exists for the minimal stack size that can be created. This limitation is platform dependent and is equal to PTHREAD_STACK_MIN. As a result, pthread_create() will create its own stack and just ignore the stack passed by FreeRTOS. Nothing bad will happen to the runtime system if this happens, but some users who use FreeRTOS debugging tools to display stack information or other FreeRTOS variables will notice some inconsistencies.
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